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Educated to Lead. Inspired to Achieve.


Champ Auditorium 9 – 10:15 a.m.


Dr. Carolyn Perry, Senior Vice President of the College,
Dean of Faculty and Professor of English


Introduction of Keynote Speaker
Dr. Kurt Jefferson, Assistant Dean of Global Initiatives, Director of the
Churchill Institute for Global Engagement and Professor of Political Science


Keynote Address
Juris Pupcenoks, Ph.D.
Never a Dull Moment: Researching Global Affairs

Juris Pupcenoks is an assistant professor of political science at Marist College, New York, where he teaches classes in global politics. A specialist in international relations and comparative politics, Pupcenoks completed a B.A. at Westminster College and an M.A. and Ph.D. at the University of Delaware. He previously taught at the University of Delaware and Washington College (Maryland), the 10th oldest college in the United States. He has conducted field research in Muslim communities in the United Kingdom, Italy and the U.S. and published in numerous journals, including International Interactions, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, Middle East Journal and Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. His monograph Western Muslims and Conflicts Abroad was published by Routledge in 2016. Broadly, his research focuses on understanding how different groups (be it diasporas, Americans or Europeans) mobilize politically and react to conflicts abroad. More specific research interests include diasporic and ethnic politics, humanitarian intervention, international security, causes of political violence, politics of Muslims and minorities in the West and transatlantic relations. He is fluent in Latvian (native) and Russian, intermediate in French and is currently learning Mandarin Chinese. His hobbies include traveling, running and tennis.


Student Presenters:

Allison Schott, Amy Greene, Kyle Stokes
Water Quality Analysis of Finger Lakes State Park: Potential Impacts of a Reclaimed Coal Mine
David Schmidt and Irene Unger
Finger Lakes State Park, a reclaimed coal mine, is now used as a recreational area. Because abandoned coal mines can negatively impact surrounding ecosystems, this project uses water quality analyses to understand potential effects of this one-of-a-kind Missouri lake system.


Student Awards

SESSION 1 10:30 – 11:30 a.m.

SESSION 1 A: Fraud in America at Westminster and in Callaway County
CSC Lecture Hall 10:30 a.m.
Moderator: Dr. Carter Campbell


Kayla Reeg, Kenny Schmidt, Annabelle Ensz
Credit Card Fraud in American Lives
Carter Campbell
The U.S. accounted for 47 percent of the world’s credit card fraud in 2015. Americans are more at risk than ever as our society is continuing to move toward electronic payments. As accountants, the researchers contend it is their responsibility to uncover these fraudulent actions.


Alvin Long, Carson Butts, Drew Landherr
Catch Me If You Can
Carter Campbell
Card identity theft is among the most common financial crimes and is extremely difficult to identify and recover from. This project dives into the case of Albert Gonzalez, a man responsible for creating an online network of hackers and obtaining more than 1.5 million stolen credit card numbers from various corporations.


Connor Muenks, Ben Holterman, Jordan Daugherty
Faking Out American Enterprise: The Creation and Business of Fake Credit Cards
Carter Campbell
Fraudulent credit cards make up 37 percent of all credit card frauds worldwide. Because of how easy it is to commit the crime and how great the potential gain, criminals such as Sean Roberson have been able to create an empire out of such crime rings.


SESSION 1 B: Alternative Media and Identity CSC 204 10:30 a.m.
Moderator: Dr. Enrique Salas-Durazo

 Sawyer Young
Analyzing Photographers Edward Curtis and Frank Matsura and Their Impact on North American Indians at the Turn of the 20th Century
This paper examines the origins of the division between art and documentary in photography that began in the 19th century and how the economics of photography in the American frontier shaped the kinds of photographs Western photographers produced. Edward Curtis and Frank Mastura fit within the context of these two styles. This paper examines specific photographs from each photographer that highlight their style and the impact they each had on the visual understanding of American Indian people.


Abigail Bax
La Muerte de la Inocencia: Mexican Identity through Pedro Páramo and Other Works
Enrique Salas-Durazo
This project focuses on the famous Mexican novel Pedro Páramo by Juan Rulfo. It discusses the identity of the titular character in comparison to other famous characters in Mexican literature and modern interpretations from Cristina Rivera Garza. Pedro Páramo has been a foundational novel in Latin American writing by shaping it through time, and this presentation looks at the central idea of the death of innocence in Latin American literature.


Ian Pletenik
Letter Know You Think of Home: A Look at the Letters of John and Abigail Adams
This essay takes the setting of correspondent and examines the influence it has on the letter-writing process, quality of letter and personal vs. impersonal aspects from the letters of John and Abigail Adams and Alexis de Tocqueville.


SESSION 1 C: Panel Presentation from the Sixth Annual President’s Interfaith and Community Service Gathering in Washington, D.C.
CSC 205 10:30 a.m.
Moderator: Chaplain Maeba Jonas and Leijla Derviševic


Pierre “Kendy” Lamour, Fathimath Shafa, Rupa Kumari
Interfaith/Intercultural Practice and Programming
Maeba Jonas
Together with students and staff from interfaith groups on the campus of Arizona State University and staff from international development NGO World Faith, this project includes presentations about the intercultural/interfaith practices and programming at these institutions. Researchers focused on the organizations’ efforts and compiled the data and work, which was then presented at a conference in Washington, D.C. All presenters shared case studies for their work, followed by a facilitated conversation about commonalities and differences in successful and sustainable methodologies.


SESSION 1 D: Applied Mathematics
CSC 206 10:30 a.m.

Moderator: Dr. Erin Martin


Bailey Mitchell and Eli Sherman
“Cabs Are Here!” Taxicab Metric Space
Mathematics is all around us, and the city blocks of Manhattan serve as a model for a metric space within the world we know. This paper explores the meaning and history of metric spaces, specifically the ins and outs of the taxicab metric space.


Tanner Cooper
Feedback Control in Flight Dynamics
This research project is centered on the stability analysis of control dynamical systems: specifically, the nonlinear dynamics of aircraft are examined by the technique of linearization. The behavior of the aircraft under small perturbations is regulated by feedback control.


Saurav Singh, Utkrista Malla
Machine Learning
Machine learning, a subfield of artificial intelligence, is the study of algorithms that can learn and make predictions by building models from example data without being explicitly programmed to solve the task at hand. The research goal is to experiment and review available resources and literature on implementing machine learning techniques to acoustic signal processing to judge the feasibility of acoustic touch surfaces.


SESSION 1 E: Economic Growth
CSC 207 10:30 a.m.
Moderator: Dr. Rabi Bhandari


Shahil Shrestha
Overcoming the Diversity Dilemma: Ethnic Diversity and Economic Growth
Rabi Bhandari

In the U.S. and many countries around the world, there is a growing debate on whether diversity helps or hinders the economy. This study explores the impact of ethnic diversity on economic growth across countries, especially in Asia.


Htet Phyo Wai
How Does Endogenous Growth Model Explain the Consumption in the U.S.?
This paper will analyze the trends in consumption of U.S. economy and how it was affected by output growth. The endogenous growth model will be used to analyze the influence of factor productivity, saving and capital on consumption level.


Mthobisi Maseko
The Political Economy of Farm Support Programs in the U.S.
Rabi Bhandari
This presentation on a research paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the political and economic factors behind the emergence and subsequent persistence of agribusiness support programs in the U.S.


POSTER SESSION 1 F: Biochemistry and Chemistry
CSC Atrium 10:30 a.m.

Moderators: Dr. Jeff Mayne and Dr. Bernie Hansert


Laura Kelly, Ella Leslie, Isaac Coronel, Zac Norton
Purification and Characterization of Alpha-Hemolysin
Jeff Mayne
Many pathogenic bacteria are capable of hemolysis, or the breaking down of red blood cells by enzymes called hemolysin. The goal of this study is to obtain pure samples of alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus, assay it and characterize it as much as possible.


Morgan Henry, Glenn Teubner, Austin Morris, Brian Mwangi
Purification and Characterization of Carbonic Anhydrase
Jeff Mayne
Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme found in red blood cells that balances the pH of blood and allows organisms to breathe out carbon dioxide. The goal of this project is to create and test a protocol for purification of this enzyme from bovine liver.


Leah Barks, Ryan Dyer, Caden Weigl
Purification and Characterization of Catalase
Jeff Mayne
Catalase is found in most organisms that are in an oxygenated environment. Catalase is important for protecting the cell from hydrogen peroxide, which it does by breaking hydrogen peroxide down to water and oxygen. The objective of this research project is to develop a protocol for the purification and characterization of catalase from bovine liver.


Abdullah Mahdi, Cooper Green, Chandler Haxton
Purification and Activity Investigation of Salivary Human a-Amylase
Jeff Mayne
This study focuses on purification of a-Amylase from human salivary glands and investigates, with an enzymatic assay, the activity of the enzyme. Amylase is produced in the mouth cavity and assists in the hydrolysis of polysaccharides (dietary starch) to their basic units, maltose and glucose. This research further purifies and tests other chemical factors affecting the enzyme activity and explores methods of purification.


Victoria Moser, Kaitlin Rosholm, Linda Mushi, Jessica Thomeczek
The Extraction and Purification of Bromelain from Pineapple Rind
Jeff Mayne
Bromelain is a proteolytic enzyme found within pineapple rinds. It has been used to help with swelling, inflammation and absorption of pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics. This project focuses on extracting and purifying this enzyme from the pineapple rind.


Laura Kelly
Optical Properties of Alum Crystals
Bernie Hansert
Alums are a class of compounds that form regular crystalline structures. By using different transition metals to form the alums, researchers can change the color and optical properties of the compounds. To see these properties, they can use a UV/VIS spectrophotometer and determine how much of each metal is taken up into the crystal structure.


Guuleed Ali; Lenzin Dolker; Glen Frerichs, Ph.D.
New Batch Chemical Oscillator: Acidic Periodate System
Glen Frerichs
While searching for a new batch pH oscillator, these researchers discovered a system giving extremely large, rapid oscillations in the potential of a Pt electrode. The closed system consists of an aqueous solution of NaIO4 at 60 degrees C containing a very low concentration of HClO4. Both periodic and aperiodic oscillations in potential of amplitude 1400 – 1600 mV have been observed over a range of concentrations. A possible mechanism will be discussed.


POSTER SESSION 1 G: Human Health and Anatomy No. 1
CSC 126 10:30 a.m.

Moderator: Dr. Dawn Holliday

Rachel Bade, Marissa Hackbarth, Allison Moulton, Janie Wetzel
Pinkies Up: Join the Par-tea!
Dawn Holliday
Tea consumption is perceived as a stress reliever, but is it really? This study measured the effects of black tea on cardiovascular health following a stressful situation.


Carrie Antoine, Polly Herndon, Nolan Wood, Hunter Domsch
Who Could Be the Big Bad Wolf?
Dawn Holliday
Individuals with poor lung capacity might “huff and puff” after hyperventilation. This project examined how exercise, smoking, singing and other factors affect lung capacity by causing pulmonary stress and determined which group had the highest lung capacity.


Chandler Haxton, Carie Ann Lawson, Tyler Thurman
Make Love or War?
Dawn Holliday
The endocrine system can become activated in response to external stimuli. This project examined males before and after exposure to violent or romantic media and determined their effect on salivary testosterone concentrations, heart rate and blood pressure.


Nick Bohlmann, Trey Delcamp, Ethan Muffett, Jeremy Hill
Lacrosse: Where Aggressive Personalities Transform into First-Class Athletes
Dawn Holliday
This project tested male college lacrosse players to determine if they would experience an increase in vital signs and salivary testosterone before and during competitive game play.


Kellie Kavanaugh, Hannah Marshall, Patrick Souders, Danielle Lorenscheit
Drunk Words Are Sober Thoughts
Dawn Holliday
A majority of Westminster College students binge drink, which makes alcohol use a top priority on campus. This research examined the effect of alcohol on everyday cognitive functions, including balance and reaction time, while also monitoring vital signs.


POSTER SESSION 1 H: Biology, Developmental Biology and Genetics
CSC 139 10:30 a.m.
Moderator: Dr. Gabe McNett


Caroline McEwen, Victoria Reyes, Austin Smith, Madison Zachk
The Effect of Common Drugs on Chirp Rate in the House Cricket (Achetus Domesticus)
Gabe McNett
Research has shown invertebrate animals can be a viable alternative to vertebrates for biomedical or toxicology tests, but this work has focused on a limited number of species. Here, this project assessed whether common drugs affect chirp rate in the common house cricket (Acheta domesticus).


Kristen Hirst, Jessica Kinkade, Ashley Wallace
Dominance Hierarchy in Permanent Resident Birds at Feeders
Gabe McNett
Dominance hierarchies are social relationships that minimize the need for direct conflict. They can be intra(within) or inter(among) specific. This study assessed whether a dominance hierarchy exists among permanent resident passerine birds.


Tyler Thurman, Glen Teubner, Shawn Kamp, Nick Spurgeon
Ideal Free Distribution in Canada Geese (Branta canadensis)
Gabe McNett
The ideal free distribution (IFD) is an ecological model that predicts that animals will arrange themselves proportionally to the amount of available resources. This study examined whether Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exhibit behavior consistent with the IFD model when offered food at differing rates.


Ellen Woolsey, Adrienne Ebersole, John Stuckey, Sean Carey
Behavioral Response of Chinese Mantises (Tenodera sinensis) to Looming Objects
Gabe McNett
Animals exhibit a wide range of defensive behaviors in response to potential danger, from evasion, crypsis (motionless), to aggression and attack. For this project, the researchers tested whether the defensive response of the Chinese mantis (Tenodera sinensis) differed with size of a looming object.


Caroline McEwen
The Effect of Changes in CaCl2 Levels on Sea Urchin Early Development
Jane Kenney-Hunt
Sea urchins are a vital model organism for studying fertilization and development. This student-designed project investigated the importance of calcium during embryo development. Researchers hypothesized that only embryos in artificial seawater with a calcium concentration at 100 percent would develop past gastrulation.


Victoria Moser
The Effect of Carbaryl on Sea Urchin Embryogenesis
Jane Kenney-Hunt
Carbaryl, a pesticide used in agriculture, can affect the development of living organisms, including marine life. Sea urchins have higher molecular functions of development, similar to higher vertebrates, which allows researchers to test the effect of carbaryl on sea urchin embryogenesis.


Morgan Henry; Kristen Warncke; Madison Rybak; Celeste Cummings; Jane Kenney-Hunt, Ph.D.
Quantitative Trait Loci for Skeletal Traits in BxD Strain Mice
Jane Kenney-Hunt
For this project, researchers performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to identify genomic regions with effects on long bone length in mice. Results are compared to published studies on bone size in mice to identify intraspecies variation in genetic effects.

LUNCH 11:30 a.m. – 12:30 p.m.

SESSION 2 12:30 – 1:30 p.m.

SESSION 2 A: Justice and Power in Cultural Context

CSC 204 12:30 p.m.
Moderator: Dr. Maureen Tuthill


Courtney Gallagher
Early American Media and the Manufacture of Public Opinion
Maureen Tuthill
During the American Revolution and the creation of the U.S. Constitution, early Americans relied on pamphlets, periodicals and newspapers to communicate. This thesis explores how these media forms interacted to manufacture and manage the public’s social and political ideologies.


Erin Perry
A Constructive Theology of Justice
Rev. Jamie Haskins
Incorporating the works of Ta-Nahisi Coates, James Cone, Miguel De La Torre, Nancy Eisland, Gustavo Guitierrez and others, this study constructs a theology of justice that includes a comprehensive definition of justice as well as a focus on the role of the church in working for justice.


Adesola Adeyemo
The Problem with Hegemonic Masculinity and the Need to Strip Male Power Structures in Nigeria
Sam Goodfellow
The cultural forms of masculinity and femininity further reiterate the gender gap between men and women. The goal of this research is to analyze how masculine powers can be eradicated in an attempt to create gender equality in Nigeria by comparing and studying modules that have been successful in European countries.


SESSION 2 B: Biology and Environmental Science
CSC 205 12:30 p.m.

Moderator: Dr. Chris Halsey


Jessica Thomeczek, Kalin Kyte, Dakota Wilson, Jeremy Quinton
Electronic Cigarette Juices – What’s Really Inside
Christopher Halsey
Electronic cigarettes have recently become extremely popular among many generations. By using advanced chemical machinery, this study identifies and analyzes multiple components of a variety of electronic cigarette juices.


Guuleed Ali
Crowdsourcing Solar Energy
Solar energy may be abundant and the cleanest energy source, but converting it to usable and storable energy is another matter. This research focuses on one component of this challenge, finding the most efficient catalyst for splitting water as a means to store solar energy.


SESSION 2 C: Issues of the Global Community
CSC 206 12:30 p.m.
Moderator: Dr. Jeremy Straughn


Shahil Shrestha, Gordon Allison, Scovia Aweko, Ayush Manandhar
Issues of the Global Community
Jeremy Straughn
The global community tackles a range of issues that impact the lives of diverse groups of people across borders. This panel will specifically raise questions on issues concerning refugees, insurgencies, economic growth and the usage of narcotics.


Juan Manzo Ramirez, Mustafe Elmi, Caleb Herr
Integration, NATO’s Role and Corruption in the Developing World
Jeremy Straughn
These papers will evaluate: 1) the impact that defining corruption as a human rights violation will have under international law; 2) what factors hinder or help Muslim integration to European nations; and 3) the migrant crisis currently taking place in much of the Western world and address how NATO is dealing with this issue, in addition to the actions taken by NATO member states.


SESSION 2 D: Stocks, Trades and Investments
CSC 207 12:30 p.m.
Moderator: Dr. Rabi Bhandari


Percy Vanacht
Rational Asset Bubbles: Evidence For or Against EMH
Rabi Bhandari
Rational asset bubbles are an attempt to explain price increases that deviate from fundamental value in context of no arbitrage profit. This paper examines the interaction between two different asset classes (risky and non-risky) and how yield preferences in a low-interest-rate environment provide an environment for equity bubbles to form.


Xinfu Li
Chinese International Trade and Investment
This research investigates Chinese international trade and investment since 1978. The reform and opening-up policy in 1978 brought great effects to the Chinese economic system; China started to explore a broader market in the world. Through analyzing data, the graph of Chinese development in the past 40 years will be clearly shown, and people can also make predictions based on its future tendency.


Jordan Cox
Causal Mechanisms of the January Effect in Small Capitalization U.S. Stocks
For years, investors have noticed a trend in which stocks shoot higher than average in January as opposed to other months of the year. This study investigates multiple economic and financial factors to find why this phenomenon has been so prevalent and whether the January seasonal prediction actually contradicts the efficient-market hypothesis.


SESSION 2 E: Health Care in America’s Prisons and the National Security Enterprise
CSC 138 12:30 p.m.
Moderator: Dr. Selcen Phelps


Gracie Koonce, Heidi Gundy
Health Care within the American Prison System
Health care is a basic need for day-to-day life. This necessity, however, is often overlooked in regard to state and federal incarceration. From everyday hygiene products to special medicinal treatment, this research explores the availability of health care within the American prison system.


Eric Woytas, Jack Stuckey
Locking up the Mentally Ill: Forgetting the Forgotten
From murderers and thieves, to drug dealers and rapists, the American prison system secludes dangerous people from the rest of society. However, there are more than 356,000 mentally ill individuals trapped in this same system housing the worst of society. This paper will discuss that dilemma.


Zachary Mason Evers, Robyn Parkinson, Sydney Franklin
An Examination of the Law within the National Security Enterprise
Delegates to the ABA’s National Security Law Conference participate in panel discussions that examine the legal matters that affect the national security enterprise. After careful consideration of the topics, these students each crafted papers analyzing a particular issue discussed at the conference.


POSTER SESSION 2 F: Environmental Science and Paleontology
CSC Atrium 12:30 p.m.
Moderator: Dr. David Schmidt


Kristen Hirst; Lucitania Savio; Zachary Stafford; Irene Unger, Ph.D.
Assessment of Potential Solutions to the Water Drought in California
Irene Unger
This investigation looks into three initiatives trying to solve the California water drought and explores the feasibility of desalination, social conservation and sustainable agriculture by analyzing cost efficiency, water production/ conservation and environmental impact.


Olivia Andoe, Leah Barks, Brennan Horn, McKenna Peters
The Effect of Light Pollution on Foraging in a Nocturnal Crayfish (Orconectes immunis)
Gabe McNett
When animals experience excessive or unnatural light relative to their natural experience, it can have adverse effects on their behavior. This study tests the effect of light pollution on the feeding behavior of a native, nocturnally feeding crayfish (Oronectus immunis).


Kristen Hirst; David Schmidt, Ph.D.
Two Eocene Entelodont Mandibles: Taxonomic Descriptions, Life Histories and Stable Isotope Analyses
Two entelodont mandibles were recovered in the summers of 2015 and 2016. Quantitative data and morphological descriptions reveal information about taxonomy, ontogeny and gender. A preliminary isotopic analysis is also being used to determine environmental conditions during the Eocene.


Sawyer Young; Ahmed Baqai; David Schmidt, Ph.D.
Mapping Project of Fossil Eocene Bone Bed in Oglala National Grasslands, Nebraska
In 2015, a high concentration of fossilized elements from an Eocene bone bed was discovered. This study creates a physical an digital map to evaluate: 1) elemental density; 2) orientation and relationship of elements; and 3) future excavations.


Letecia Ferreira; Ka Wai Wu; David Schmidt, Ph.D.; Chris Halsey, Ph.D.
Stable Isotopic Analysis of Fossil Enamel: Preliminary Investigation of Eocene Taxa
David Schmidt
Microvertebrate fossils were collected from the Oglala National Grasslands of Nebraska. Teeth were separated from sediment and processed for stable isotopic analysis. Using the ratio of oxygen isotopes, this project compares taxa and makes inferences about environmental conditions.


POSTER SESSION 2 G: Human Health and Anatomy No. 2
CSC 126 12:30 p.m.
Moderator: Dr. Dawn Holliday


Jaynie Coffman, Kesi Hill, Shannon McCaul, Abby Bartley
Hate Cavities? Urine Luck!
Dawn Holliday
Diet indirectly affects salivary pH. Byproducts of protein metabolism can influence the formation of dental cavities and other oral pathologies. This study examines how supplements of amino acids and urea affect salivary pH.

Ethan Muffet
Exploration of Hip Anatomy: Structure and Function
Dawn Holliday
Nearly one out of every eight college athletes at some point suffers a hip region-related injury. This study of the hip joint identifies structures and sites that are most prone to injury during athletics.


Ella Leslie
Multiple Sclerosis vs. Typical Nervous Tissue
Using the cadaver lab in CSC 343, the researcher will dissect and compare a typical brain to one affected by multiple sclerosis and, through grass analysis and histological sections, research defining the effects of the neurodegenerative disease.


Jem Aizen M. Guhit
How Genetics and Stress Affect the Categorical Processing of the Brain
Bernie Hansert
Stress causes wide ranges of risks to the body physically and mentally. Understanding how stress affects the brain and body is critical to effectively intervene. Several genetic markers can be associated with atypical stress responses. These markers include the serotonergic system, which is involved in anxiety. The goal of this research is to determine which allele (the short (S) or long (L)) of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) is associated to greater cognitive impairment on categorical processing during stress.


POSTER SESSION 2 H: Reducing Stress and Aggression
CSC 139 12:30 p.m.
Moderator: Dr. Thomas Irelan


Madison Felderwerth
Reducing Regret and Aggression: The Effect of Attachment and Decision-Communication Aids
The current study explored the effects of insecure attachment styles on a person’s ability to engage in effective decision-making situations. In addition, this study was designed to look at a person’s aggression coping skills as a result of being placed in the decision-making scenario with the goal of reducing their overall aggression.


Nicole Hall, Ethan Smith, Jacob Linders, Tirso Aquino
Attachment Style and Its Interaction with Obsessive Compulsivity in Responding to a Stress Test
Thomas Irelan
Previous research shows that attachment style is a predictor of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Additionally, people with certain attachment styles respond to stress more negatively than others. In response, this study investigates an interaction between attachment style and levels of OCD on how participants respond to agitation of obsessive compulsions on a stress test.


Daniel Lusk, Erica Burney, Adrianna Dunn
Coping Mechanisms in Introverts and Extroverts in Relation to Depression, Anxiety and Stress
The “Big Five” personality traits help explain why people of each personality trait differ in response to the same situation. The researchers investigated the relationship between personality type and coping strategies.


SESSION 2 H: Art Exhibition
CSC Atrium 12:30 p.m.


Kyle Stokes
Art Installation: “A Tense Relationship”
This independent study focuses on creating an artistic presentation with an environmental awareness message. The site for the exhibit was Community United Methodist Church (CUMC) of Columbia, Missouri. Materials including pallets, yarn and mirrors were used to create a sculptural representation of nature and humanity’s relationship.


SESSION 3 1:45 – 2:45 p.m.

SESSION 3 A: Art and Creative Fiction
CSC 204 1:45 p.m.
Moderator: Dr. Brandon Krieg


Karley Long
The Greater Good: A Reading of Creative Fiction
Carolyn Perry, Irene Unger
The world’s population just reached 10 billion people, and the fight for food is on. The government bans the administration of all vaccines in an attempt to reduce the population. As the death toll rises, the life of one woman is in more danger than most as she attempts to run the black market for these now-illegal vaccines.


Veronica Lake
Selections of Creative Writing
Nathaniel Leonard
Lake reads selections from her Creative Writing Honors Project, which she has been working on this academic year, including a mix of poetry, fiction and nonfiction, if time allows.


SESSION 3 B: History and Social Impact
CSC 205 1:45 p.m.
Moderator: Dr. Sam Goodfellow


Zachary Stafford
California’s Fight for Clear Gold: San Francisco and Los Angeles’ Quest for Water
Sam Goodfellow
In the past six years, California has been in a drought that has affected millions of people in the state. California’s history is full of environmental fights for control of water. This thesis examines who got control of the water and how much power they received from it.


Ahmed Baqai
Overfishing: A Japanese Philosophical Perspective
James McRae
This paper looks at the global issue of overfishing — specifically how one can justify its consumption today using Japanese philosophy and teachings — and explores the philosophy of Minamta-gaku, teachings of Ogyu Sorai and the concepts of Gusho Kyosei.


Nathan Wilson
One Weapon to Change Them All?: Social Impacts of Military Revolutions in Medieval Japan and Europe
Sam Goodfellow
This thesis investigates how two societies in the medieval times reacted to military revolutions. Despite one society evolving through the arquebus and the other through pikes, both civilizations experienced similar new social class struggles, military tactics, political evolution and culture changes.


SESSION 3 C: Chemistry
CSC 206 1:45 p.m.
Moderator: Dr. Jane Kenney-Hunt


Morgan Henry; Kristen Warncke; Jane Kenney-Hunt, Ph.D.
Quantitative Trait Loci for Skeletal Traits in BxD Strain Mice
Jane Kenney-Hunt
For this study, the researchers performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to identify genomic regions with effects on long bone length in mice. Results are compared to published studies on bone size in mice to identify intraspecies variation in genetic effects.


Ahmed Baqai, Olivia Andoe
Sustainability of Organic Farming in Saudi Arabia
Irene Unger
This study explores the potential challenges and benefits of sustainable organic farming in the desert climate of Saudi Arabia. The political, economic, social, ecological and technological contexts were examined. Although initially skeptical, the researchers concluded that sustainable organic farming is feasible.



CSC Atrium 3 p.m.




A special thanks to the Stubbs family for their generous support of
the Undergraduate Scholars Forum.

We are pleased to recognize
Gail and David ’68 Stubbs, Thad Stubbs ’00,

Beth (Howard) Stubbs ’00 and Courtney (Swan) Stubbs ’01
for their passion and commitment to undergraduate research at Westminster College.

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